New Members

06/27/2022, Punjabi University Patiala, Punjab, India

06/01/2022, Kestra Medical Technologies, Inc., Kirkland, USA Kestra Medical Technologies is a wearable medical device and digital healthcare company that protects patients with diagnostic and therapeutic technologies that are intuitive, intelligent, and mobile.

06/07/2021, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain

04/30/2021, ETH Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland

04/30/2021, University Carlos III Madrid Lopez, Madrid, Spain

04/30/2021, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran Province, Iran

01/12/2021, The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

01/12/2021, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain

01/12/2021, Universidad iberoamericana, Mexico City, MEXICO

01/12/2021, Clinical Technology , Brecksville, USA

06/05/2020, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain

06/05/2020, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, USA

05/28/2020, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom

05/28/2020, The University of AIZU, Fukushima, Japan

05/28/2020, National Taiwan University, Taipei City, Taiwan

02/28/2020, Indian Institute of Space & Science & Tech, Kerala, India To be a world class educational and research institution contributing significantly to the Space endeavours

02/20/2020, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia Monash University is one of Australia’s leading universities and ranks among the world’s top 100. We help change lives through research and education.

12/24/2019, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, SPAIN

11/11/2019, University of Verona, Verona, ITALY

11/11/2019, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA The University of Pittsburgh is a state-related research university, founded as the Pittsburgh Academy in 1787. Pitt is a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU), which comprises 62 preeminent doctorate-granting research institutions in North America.

11/11/2019, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin , CHINA Tianjin University is the oldest institution of higher education in the modern history of China. Founded in 1895 as Peiyang University, Tianjin University’s 123-year history is the epitome of the progress of modern Chinese higher education, embodying the Chinese people’s indomitability through challenging times.

11/01/2019, Parsons Government Service, HOUSTON, USA Founded in 1944, Parsons Corporation --- a digitally enabled solutions provider --- is focused on the defense, intelligence, and critical infrastructure markets.

10/31/2019, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK

10/31/2019, Air University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan The mission of Air University is to achieve excellence in teaching and research for producing graduates with sound professional knowledge, integrity of character, a keen sense of social responsibility and a passion for lifelong learning. The University shall stand committed to creating an environment conducive for attracting the best students, faculty and supporting staff for contributing to the development of a prosperous, peaceful and enlightened society.

05/15/2019, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA For 168 years, this campus has been a catalyst for the extraordinary. As a public land-grant university and prolific research institution, our students, staff, and faculty members partake in a world-class education and solve real-world problems

05/15/2019, Utrecht University, Utrecht, NETHERLANDS

05/15/2019, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA

05/15/2019, University of California Los Angeles, os Angeles, USA

05/15/2019, University of California Irvine, Irvine, USA Founded in 1965, UCI is the youngest member of the prestigious Association of American Universities. The campus has produced three Nobel laureates and is known for its academic achievement, premier research, innovation and anteater mascot. Led by Chancellor Howard Gillman, UCI has more than 36,000 students and offers 222 degree programs.

05/15/2019, Technion , Haifa, ISRAEL A science and technology research university, among the world’s top ten,

05/15/2019, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, FINLAND Tampere University is one of the most multidisciplinary universities in Finland. Almost all internationally recognised fields of study are represented at our university.

05/15/2019, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Shenzhen, CHINA

05/15/2019, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, CHINA

05/15/2019, Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University, Sankt-Peterburg, RUSSIA Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University "LETI" is one of the world's largest education centers specializing in radio engineering, electrical engineering, electronics and computer science.

05/15/2019, Pontifical Xavierian University, Bogotá, Colombia

05/15/2019, University of Sfax , Sfax, TUNISIA

05/15/2019, King Saud University, Riyadh , SAUDIA ARABIA

05/15/2019, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES The newly-established Khalifa University of Science and Technology (KU) combines the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology (MI), the Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research (KUSTAR) and the Petroleum Institute (PI) into one world-class, research-intensive institution, seamlessly integrating research and education to produce world leaders and critical thinkers in applied science and engineering.

05/15/2019, Argentine Institute of Mathematics, Buenos Aires , ARGENTINA

05/15/2019, INESC TEC, Porto, PORTUGAL INESC TEC is a private non-profit research institution, dedicated to scientific research and technological development, technology transfer, advanced consulting and training, and pre-incubation of new technology-based companies.

05/15/2019, Fraunhofer HHI, Berlin, GERMANY Innovations for the digital society of the future are the focus of research and development work at the Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute HHI. In this area, Fraunhofer HHI is a world leader in the development of mobile and optical communication networks and systems, fiber optical sensor systems as well as the processing and coding of video signals.

05/15/2019, Heart Input Output, Inc., Pittsburgh, USA

05/15/2019, Harrisburg University, Harrisburg, USA

05/15/2019, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, POLAND

05/15/2019, Carlos III University of Madrid , Madrid, SPAIN UC3M´s mission is to contribute to the improvement of society through teaching of the highest quality and cutting-edge research in line with stringent international guidelines. The University aspires to excellence in all its activities, with the aim of becoming one of the top universities in Europe.

05/15/2019, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, USA BIDMC is part of Beth Israel Lahey Health, a new health care system that brings together academic medical centers and teaching hospitals, community and specialty hospitals, more than 4,000 physicians and 35,000 employees in a shared mission to expand access to great care and advance the science and practice of medicine through groundbreaking research and education.

[01/24/2018], Biological Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged, Hungary The BRC is an outstanding institution of the internationally acknowledged Hungarian biological research. The Biological Research Centre was founded in 1971. The 4 institutes of BRC - the Institutes of Biophysics, Biochemistry, Genetics and Plant Biology - employ about 260 scientists whose work is hall-marked by highly appreciated international scientific publications and patents. The research topics include several fields of molecular and cell biology from the industrial utilization of bacteria through controlled improvement of cultivated plants to the problems of human health and environmental protection. BRC is mainly a scientific basic research centre, but scientists of BRC play an initiative role in the foundation and promotion of biotechnological companies, as well as in educational duties.

[01/02/2018], Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís - MA, Brazil Founded in 1966, Universidade Federal do Maranhão (Federal University of Maranhão) is a non-profit public higher education institution located in the medium-sized city of São Luis (population range of 500,000-1,000,000 inhabitants), Maranhao. Officially accredited and/or recognized by the Ministério da Educação, Brazil (Ministry of Education, Brazil), Universidade Federal do Maranhão (UFMA) is a coeducational higher education institution. Universidade Federal do Maranhão (UFMA) offers courses and programs leading to officially recognized higher education degrees such as bachelor degrees in several areas of study.

[03/12/2018], University of Vigo, Viigo, Spain The University of Vigo is a modern and innovative institution, which offers more than 50 degree courses on three different campuses: a) the Vigo campus – which includes both the Lagoas Marcosende campus (15 km from the city centre) and the historical campus at Torrecedeira, b) the Ourense campus, and c) the Pontevedra campus. More than 24,000 students are registered at the three campuses, and 1,600 lecturers teach undergraduate and postgraduate programs at the University of Vigo. Our institution offers degrees in all knowledge areas, especially in the scientific-technological field. Some of the degrees are unique within the Galician university system and not very common in the rest of the Spanish universities: Fine Arts on the Pontevedra Campus, Mining and Telecommunication Engineering on the Vigo campus, and Tourism on the Ourense campus.

[01/24/2018], Stanford Medicine, Stanford, USA A leader in the biomedical revolution, Stanford Medicine has a long tradition of leadership in pioneering research, creative teaching protocols and effective clinical therapies. Our close proximity to the resources of the university — including the Schools of Business, Law, Humanities and Sciences, and Engineering, our seamless relationship with our affiliated adult and children’s hospitals, and our ongoing associations with the entrepreneurial endeavors of Silicon Valley, make us uniquely positioned to accelerate the pace at which new knowledge is translated into tangible health benefits.

[01/24/2018], The Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence, Vienna, Austria The Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (OFAI) is one of Europe's leading non-profit contract research institutions. Services offered range from consultancy, basic and applied research on a contractual base, to working as partner or prime contractor in scientific projects on a national or European level, with a twenty year experience in a diversity of domains, from economic, engineering, administrative to social and cultural tasks.

[10/25/2017], University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, USA As the flagship statewide, public, academic health system, the mission of the University of Tennessee Health Science Center is to bring the benefits of the health sciences to the achievement and maintenance of human health, with a focus on the citizens of Tennessee and the region, by pursuing an integrated program of education, research, clinical care and public service. Employing more than 6,000 people on its faculty, staff and not-for-profit corporation faculty practice groups, UTHSC contributes more than $2.7 billion to the economy of Tennessee.

[10/24/2017], Dankook University, Yongin-si,, South Korea Dankook University cherishes truth and service as its guiding principles. It is our belief that the purpose of research and study lies beyond simply acquiring tools for sustenance – the ultimate purpose of higher learning is the enrichment of human knowledge and culture. Principally, scholars are obligated to return such knowledge to society and contribute to historical advancement. They must seek to develop sharp, critical minds and a righteous moral character; by doing so and voluntarily participating in the betterment of society as a whole, one embodies the path Dankook wishes to set forth. It has been the unwavering devotion towards realizing such duties of higher education and patriotism that has led to Dankook University’s existence in its current form

[09/28/2017], Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China The Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) General Hospital is a large, modern, comprehensive teaching hospital providing high quality health care and opportunities for postgraduate medical education and scientific research. The hospital was founded in 1953, and is situated on the western part of the 4th Beijing Ring Road. The hospital has 165 clinical medical departments, which each year accept 49,000 outpatients and emergency patients while performing nearly 90,000 surgery cases. The medical- health care center is noted for providing high-end preventive care services.

[07/20/2017], University of Central Florida, Orlando, USA The Advanced Research Computing Center (ARCC) at the University of Central Florida houses high performance computing resources for use in research by faculty across campus. Research supported by the ARCC covers a variety of different disciplines, including Engineering, Modeling and Simulation, Optics, Nanoscience, and many others. The ARCC staff also pursues research in machine learning and visualization, as well as information technology. Currently, the center houses a high performance computing system known as Stokes, which is used to help support and drive research within the university.

[05/02/2017], Shandong University, , China Founded in 1901, Shandong University, based in Jinan, China, is the nation’s largest public university. It has prepared over 400,000 individuals in a variety of specialties, and has been making significant contributions to the country’s economic and social development. The growth of the university has allowed it to rise to the forefront of many fields in China. They continually develop new disciplines such as crystal materials, cardiovascular functional recovery, and new drug manufacturing to stay on the cutting edge of scientific research. Many of these newly formed disciplines have quickly risen to the first-class level within the country, and some are even know abroad.

[02/17/2017], University of Porto, Praça de Gomes Teixeira, Portugal The University of Porto, founded in 1911, is a leading scientific and research institution located in Portugal. The university is internationally recognized for the quality of research it produces, and is consistently ranked among the 150 best European universities. It is an important driver of economic, social, and scientific development within Portugal, and strives to be a strong partner of the business community. By combining quality teaching with a focus on market needs, the university strives to actively participate in, and encourage, the progress of communities in which it operates.

[05/24/2016], Marche Polytech University, Ancona, Italy The Department of Life and Environmental Sciences was established in 2011 by merging a number of laboratories involved in a wide spectrum of fundamental and applied research topics. The department is a center of excellence of the Università Politecnica delle Marche and includes more than 100 scientists and technicians that conduct research in areas such as analytical and organic chemistry, biophysics, cellular and molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics, microbiology and biotechnology, viral, prokaryotic, fungal, algal, plant and animal systematics, physiology and reproduction, marine biology, ecology, eco-toxicology, oceanography, Earth sciences, risk reduction and civil protection.

[05/12/2016], University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Buenos Aires University consists of thirteen colleges/schools, dozens of research institutes, and two secondary schools, offering more than 100 undergraduate majors. There is a teaching staff of 30,000 teachers, and approximately 300,000 students; 30% of scientific research in Argentina takes place at UBA. Standard undergraduate studies last approximately 5 years. Buenos Aires University offers several graduate programmers, masters, PhDs, and specialization courses as well.

[05/12/2016], Queen's University, Kingston, Canada The mission of Queen's University has been articulated in a number of different forms and formats over the past decade. In all of the presentations, the key elements have remained constant: The University will build on the strength that is Queen's - students, faculty, staff and alumni - to be among the best of internationally known universities in Canada, recognized for: •the exceptional quality of undergraduate and graduate students and programs in the arts, sciences and professions; •the intellectual power and value of research and scholarship by faculty members and students; •the exemplary service of the University and that of its graduates to the community and the nation and the community of nations.

[04/28/2016], University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium KU Leuven is a research-intensive, internationally oriented university that carries out both fundamental and applied research. It is strongly inter- and multidisciplinary in focus and strives for international excellence. To this end, KU Leuven works together actively with its research partners at home and abroad.KU Leuven encourages personal initiative and critical reflection in a culture of idea exchange, cooperation, solidarity and academic freedom.

[03/07/2016], Mayo Clinic, Rochester, USA Mayo Clinic is the first and largest integrated nonprofit medical group practice in the world, employing more than 3,800 physicians and scientists, as well as 50,900 allied health staff. Based out of Rochester, MN, the Mayo Clinic’s mission is “to inspire hope and contribute to health and well-being by providing the best care to every patient through integrated clinical practice, education, and research.” The practice specializes in treating difficult cases through tertiary care, and spends over $500 million a year on research. It was also recognized as one of the best hospitals in the U.S. for 2015-2016 by U.S. News & World Report.

[03/02/2016], Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic The Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU) is an internationally recognized higher education and research institution with more than 300 years of tradition and excellence. CTU is a leading technical research university with a large focus on cutting edge science and engineering, paired with a high-quality technical education. With 8 departments each focused on an engineering specialty, the university educates modern specialists, scientists, and managers who are dynamic, flexible, and able to rapidly adapt to the requirements of the market.

[02/10/2016], CERB, Baugy, France Located in Baugy, France, CERB was founded in 1973 and has developed into a leading international contract research organization (CRO) in the fields of pre-clinical pharmacology and toxicology. Taking on the challenges of modern drug development, CERB has created a distinctive image as a leading major service provider to the pharmaceutical industry in the context of innovative bio-medical research. CERB takes advantage of its sophisticated synergy between pharmacology and toxicology resources to provide complete pre-phase I packages for new molecules in an economic and timely manner

[01/07/2016], Goergen Institute for Data Science (GIDS), Rochester, USA The GIDS supports faculty research, particularly collaborative public-private research partnerships spanning several domains, such as developing health care breakthroughs, improving our knowledge of how the brain works, and creating tools and systems to efficiently use data. The GIDS is working to build strategic alliances and business partnerships among the academic, government, and business communities, leveraging University of Rochester expertise.

[10/06/2015], Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany Dresden University of Technology is one of eleven German universities that were identified as an “excellent university", and includes over 37,000 students with 14 institutions offering a wide range of academic programs. The Institute of Biomedical Engineering focuses on the early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of life-threatening cardiovascular disease. With a strong focus on research.

[10/06/2015], Biomedical Systems, Maryland Heights, USA Biomedical Systems has set the health care industry standard by providing innovative approaches to non-invasive diagnostic services, clinical trials, and products. They provide their clients with the ability to increase cost efficiencies and bring studies to database lock on an advanced timeline by combining over 20 modalities in one study. Biomedical Systems' pioneering spirit is based on a strong history as a privately held company that focuses on clients and people.

[09/15/2015], VivaQuant LLC, Shoreview, USA VivaQuant provides products, services and technology that incorporate advanced signal processing to more accurately extract valuable information from biological signals. Through their technology they are committed to improving the lives of patients and the productivity of clinicians and researchers.

[08/04/2015], Sensium Healthcare Ltd, Abingdon, UK Sensium Healthcare, A global pioneer in wireless monitoring of vital signs. The company focus is on ultra-low power, lightweight, monitoring solutions which improve patient care and safety,shorten hospital stays and reduce healthcare costs.

[07/28/2015], Seoul National University, , South Korea, Seoul National University, As Korea leading research university, honoring the ideals of a liberal education aim at teaching students a lifelong love of learning that will form the basis for continuous personal growth. It includes 16 Colleges, 1 Graduate School, 9 Professional Graduate Schools with 16,006 Undergrad Students, 10,559 Graduate Students.

[07/16/2015], Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA, USA A leading innovator of medical solutions that improve the health of patients around the world. Products and technologies used to diagnose or treat a wide range of medical conditions, including heart, digestive, pulmonary, vascular, urological, women health and chronic pain conditions. Boston Scientific is dedicated to transforming lives through innovative medical solutions that improve the health of patients around the world.

[09/30/2014], Harvard Medical School-Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Boston, USA The Wyss Institute aims to discover the engineering principles that Nature uses to build living things, and harnesses these insights to create biologically inspired materials and devices that will revolutionize healthcare and create a more sustainable world. In medicine, the Institute is developing innovative materials, devices, and disease reprogramming technologies.

[03/12/2014], University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany The Charite is one of the largest university hospitals in Europe. Here, 3700 doctors and scientists heal, do research and teach at the top international level. More than half of the German Nobel Prize winners in medicine and physiology come from the Charite, among them Emil von Behring, Robert Koch and Paul Ehrlich.

[01/23/2014], BioSign GmbH, Ottenhofen, Germany Developing innovative measurement and therapy systems for professionals and end-users in the subject area vegetative (autonomic) nervous system. BioSign is responding to the growing medical recognition that disturbances in the autonomic nervous system and disturbances in the interplay of the various organs are involved with the autonomic nervous system.

[11/14/2013], University of Rochester, Computer and Electrical Engineering, Rochester, USA This department has multiple programs related to energy, to health and medicine, to the connected world, and to music. Specific research programs span a wide range, including medical imaging, image processing, genomics, audio and music signal processing, among others.

[10/31/2013], RIT, Microsystem Engineering, Rochester, USA The multidisciplinary program builds on the fundamentals of traditional engineering and science including the manipulation of electrical, photonic, optical, mechanical, chemical, and biological functionality to process, sense, and interface with the world at a nanometer scale.

[09/10/2013], Medtronic, Inc., Medtronic , USA Medtronic develops and manufactures innovative medical device technology and therapies to treat chronic disease worldwide.

[06/11/2013], RIT, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rochester, USA The RIT mission is to provide technology-based educational programs for personal and professional development. We rigorously pursue new and emerging career areas. We develop and deliver curricula and advance scholarship relevant to emerging technologies and social conditions. Our community is committed to diversity and student centeredness and is distinguished by our innovative and collaborative spirit.

[05/02/2013], Masonic Medical Research Laboratory, Utica, USA The Masonic Medical Research Laboratory is a not-for-profit institute dedicated to improving the health and quality of life for all. The Laboratory primary mission is to conduct high quality basic and clinical research aimed at generating knowledge and information necessary for development of the medical cures and treatments of tomorrow.

[04/22/2013], Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (Barcelona-Tech), Barcelona, Spain. The Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC): BarcelonaTech is a public institution dedicated to higher education and research, specialised in the fields of engineering, architecture and science. With a focus on intellectual rigor, critical thinking, a transversal approach to knowledge, educational innovation and entrepreneurship, the UPC produces competent professionals with the skills they need to tackle present and future challenges.

[03/20/2013], Teschnische Universitat(TU), Berlin, Germany The TU Dresden is one of eleven German universities that were identified as an Excellence University. TUD has about 36.500 students and almost 5319 employees, 507 professors among them, and, thus, is the largest university in Saxony.

[02/08/2013], Baskir State Pedagogical University (BSPU), Uta, Russia M. Akmullah BSPU is a large scientific, educational, cultural and social center of the Republic of Bashkortostan. It includes the Institute of Pedagogics, the Institute of Professional Education and Information Technologies, the Institute of Historical and Legal Education, the Institute of Philological Education and Cross-Cultural Communication and 7 departments with about 12 000 students.

[02/01/2013], Chung-Yuan Christian University, Taiwan, China Chung Yuan Christian University is founded on the spirit of Christian love for the world. With faith, hope, and love, we endeavor to promote higher education for the benefit of the Chinese people, aiming at the pursuit and advancement of genuine knowledge in order to maintain our cultural heritage and, thus, to serve humankind.

[12/11/2012], Cardio-QT Ltd., Glasgow, UK Headed by Royal College Accredited Cardiologist and Bioengineer supported by PhD Scientists, Cardio-QT Ltd is an award winning, highly innovative Core Cardiac Analysis Laboratory offering an array of sophisticated validated techniques to solve all analytical research problems.

[10/21/2012], National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico, Santiago de Querétaro, Mexico The Institute is the State secular free education institution, guide of public technological education in Mexico. A leader in the generation, application, dissemination and transfer of scientific and technological knowledge.

[09/24/2012], Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA Mass General has long been a leader in successfully bridging innovative science with state-of-the-art clinical medicine. With an annual research budget of nearly $764 million, Mass General conducts the largest hospital-based research program in the United States - a program that spans more than 20 clinical departments and centers across the hospital. This funding drives discoveries and breakthroughs in basic and clinical research, which translate into new and better treatments that transform medical practice and patient care.

[05/24/2012], College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA The mission of the Department of Biomedical Sciences is to educate and inform the veterinary and human biomedical communities through our diverse research and clinical service excellence as well as through our commitment to undergraduate, graduate, and veterinary teaching.

[05/02/2012], The Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute (VCCRI), Darlinghurst NSW 2010, Australia The VCCRI is committed to excellence in research into heart disease and cardiovascular biology, cardiovascular research training, and facilitating the rapid application of research discoveries to patient care.

[02/09/2012], SAIT, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Gyeonggi-do, Korea SAIT provides a full spectrum of support so its researchers can focus on creative research, seek the convergence of heterogeneous technologies and take up new challenges. Meanwhile, SAIT also actively engages in "open innovation" to jointly create future value with other research institutions through collaboration.

[01/26/2012], FDA-CDRH: Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Silver Spring, USA FDA Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) is responsible for regulating firms who manufacture, repackage, relabel, and/or import medical devices sold in the United States. In addition, CDRH regulates radiation-emitting electronic products (medical and non-medical) such as lasers, x-ray systems, ultrasound equipment, microwave ovens and color televisions.

[01/10/2012], Department of Physiological Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, USA The Mission of the Department of Physiological Nursing prevention of UCSF is to study the prevention, measurement, and treatment of physiological and biobehavioral responses to health, illness/disease and aging. Psycho-physiological interrelationships and interventions also are studied. Research spans all phases of the health/illness trajectory including people who are healthy, critically ill, living with a chronic illness, and those at the end of life.

[01/03/2012], University of Bologna (HST-ICIR), Bologna BO, Italy The University of Bologna was probably the first University in the western world. Its history is one of great thinkers in science and the humanities, making it an indispensable point of reference in the panorama of European culture. Bologna has thus been called upon to forge relationships with institutions in the most advanced countries to modernise and expand its activity. Among the many challenges which it has met with success, Bologna committed itself to the European dimension which has now led to adoption of the new university system.


[09/23/2010]: AstraZeneca joins the THEW to further cardiac safety inThe Medical News: here .

[12/16/2009]: The Director of the THEW interviewed by Technology Review published by the MIT: here .

[11/11/2009]: New Research Center to Focus on Cardiac Safety and Innovation in Pharmaceutical Industry Today: here .

[6/11/2009]: University of of Rochester and FDA Partner for ECG Database, Drug Discovery & Development Magazine. More info here

[5/6/2009] FDA website Existing Partnerships FDAs Public-Private Partnership Program: THEW

[03/28/2009] Public and Private part- nership to help determine Clinical Biomarker Utility in Applied Clinical Trials >here

Library Publications
Below is the list of publications refering to the THEW initiative or describing research works based on the data from our repository. The left colum provides the link to the manuscript or to its summary.
2023 - Manuscripts

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1 publications
pdfYan Ma, MD, MPH, Mei-Chu Chang, PhD, Daniel Litrownik, Peter M. Wayne, PhD, Gloria Y. Yeh, MD, MPH, Day-night patterns in heart rate variability and complexity: differences with age and cardiopulmonary disease


2021 - Manuscripts

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2 publications
pdfStabenau HF, Shen C, Zimetbaum P, Buxton AE, Tereshchenko LG, Waks JW. Global electrical heterogeneity associated with drug-induced torsades de pointes. Heart Rhythm. 2021 Jan;18(1):57-62. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.07.038. Epub 2020 Aug 8. PMID: 32781158; PMCID: PMC7796973
pdfA Khawaja; R Petrovic; A Safer; T Baas; O Dössel; R Fischer, Analyzing thorough QT study 1 & 2 in the telemetric and Holter ECG warehouse (THEW) using Hannover ECG System HES®: A validation study


2020 - Manuscripts

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3 publications
pdfPablo DanielCruces, DragoTorkar, Pedro DavidArini, Biomarkers of pre-existing risk of Torsade de Pointes under Sotalol treatment
pdfN. Sydney Moïse, Wyatt H. Flanders, Romain Pariaut, Beat-to-Beat Patterning of Sinus Rhythm Reveals Non-linear Rhythm in the Dog Compared to the Human
pdfTing Yang, Richard E Gregg, Saeed Babaeizadeh, Detection of Strict Left Bundle Branch Block by Neural Network and a Method to Test Detection Consistency


2019 - Manuscripts

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1 publications
pdfGabriel Lopes, Joao Ribeiro Pinto, Jaime S. Cardoso, Don't You Forget About Me: A Study on Long-Term Performance in ECG Biometrics, 2019 9th Iberian Conference on Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis


2018 - Manuscripts

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4 publications
pdfRichard E Gregg, Reza Firoozabadi, Saeed Babaeizadeh, Can Peak-Picked ECG Be Used for Heart Rate Variability?, Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC) 2018, vol. 45, pp. 1-4, 2018
pdfOmid Rajabi Shishvan, Daphney-Stavroula Zois, Tolga Soyata, Machine Intelligence in Healthcare and Medical Cyber Physical Systems: A Survey, Access IEEE, vol. 6, pp. 46419-46494, 2018
pdfBrockway, M. , Mason, J. W. and Brockway, B. P. (2018), Comparison of Electrocardiographic Biomarkers for Differentiating Drug‐induced Single vs. Multiple Cardiac Ion Channel Block. Clin Transl Sci. Accepted Author Manuscript. . doi:10.1111/cts.12596
pdfChampéroux, P., Fesler, P., Judé, S., Richard, S., Le Guennec, J.‐Y., and Thireau, J. (2018) High‐frequency autonomic modulation: a new model for analysis of autonomic cardiac control. British Journal of Pharmacology, 175: 3131–3143.


2017 - Manuscripts

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9 publications
pdf S. Hijazi, A. Page, B. Kantarci and T. Soyata, "Machine Learning in Cardiac Health Monitoring and Decision Support," in Computer, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 38-48, Nov. 2016. doi: 10.1109/MC.2016.339
pdfBrockway, M, Fossa, AA, Mason, JW, Comparison of Two Highly Automated ECG Algorithms for Detection of Drug‐Induced Cardiac Ion Channel Block, Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, SN-1532-6535,, 11 November 2017
pdfMadalena Costa, Roger Davis, Ary Goldberger, "Heart Rate Fragmentation: A Symbolic Dynamical Approach" Accepted: 06 Oct 2017 Front. Physiol. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00827
pdfVincent Jacquemet, Hugo Gravel, Daniel Curnier, Alain Vinet, Theoretical and experimental comparison of lag-based and time-based exponential moving average models of QT hysteresis, Accepted Manuscript online 8 September 2017, 2017 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine,
pdfJean-Philippe Couderc, Shiyang Ma, Alex Page, Connor Besaw, Jean Xia, W. Brian Chiu, Johan de Bie, Jose Vicente, Martino Vaglio, Fabio Badilini, Saeed Babaeizadeh, Cheng-hao Simon Chien, Mathias Baumert, An Evaluation of Multiple Algorithms for the Measurement of the Heart Rate Corrected JTpeak Interval, Journal of Electrocardiology, 2017, ISSN 0022-0736, ( Keywords: electrocardiogram; cardiac safety; QT; long QT syndrome; CiPA; torsade de pointes
pdfPage Alex, McNitt Scott, Xia Xiaojuan, Zareba Woj- ciech, Couderc Jean-Philippe, Population-ba sed beat-to-beat QT a nalysis from Holter recordings in the Long QT Syndrome, Journal of Electrocardiology (2017), doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2017.08.008
pdfP. Cruces, P. Arini, Quaternion-based study of angular velocity of the cardiac vector during myocardial ischaemia, International Journal of Cardiology (2017),
pdfFossa, Anthony A., Beat-to-beat ECG restitution: A review and proposal for a new biomarker to assess cardiac stress and ventricular tachyarrhythmia vulnerability, Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol DOI:1542-474X 10.1111/anec.12460
pdfYang Chen, Zhong-yi Wang, Gang Yuan andLan Huang, An overview of online based platforms for sharing and analyzing electrophysiology data from big data perspective, version of record online: 20 APR 2017 DOI: 10.1002/widm.1206


2016 - Manuscripts

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9 publications
pdfTamas Madl, Deep neural heart rate variability analysis, eprint arXiv:1612.09205
pdfShurouq Hijazi, Alex Page, Burak Kantarci, Tolga Soyata, Machine Learning in Cardiac Health Monitoring and Decision Support in Computer, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 38-48, Nov. 2016. doi: 10.1109/MC.2016.339
pdfMuammar M. Kabir, Golriz Sedaghat, Jason Thomas, Larisa G. Tereshchenko, Reproducibility of Heart Rate Variability Characteristics Measured on Random 10-second ECG using Joint Symbolic Dynamics
pdfS.Immanuel, A. Sadrieh, M. Baumert, J. Couderc, W. Zareba, A. Hill, J. Vandenberg T Wave Morphology Can Distinguish Healthy Controls From LQTS Patients With Normal QT Intervals Published 11 August 2016 2016 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine DOI:10.1088/0967-3334/37/9/1456
pdfSchmidt M, Baumert M, Malberg H and Zaunseder S (2016) T Wave Amplitude Correction of QT Interval Variability for Improved Repolarization Lability Measurement. Front. Physiol. 7:216. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2016.00216
pdfDemski, A J and Llamedo Soria, M., 2016 ecg-kit a Matlab Toolbox for Cardiovascular Signal Processing. Journal of Open Research Software, 4: e8, DOI:
pdfJay W. Mason,Fabio Badilini,Martino Vaglio,Robert L. Lux,Benhur Aysin,Thomas E. Moon,Brock Heinz,Iain Strachan, A fundamental relationship between intraventricular conduction and heart rate, Journal of Electrocardiology doi:10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2016.03.008
pdfImam MH,Karmakar CK,Palanaiswami M,Khandoker AH. A novel technique to investigate the effect of ageing on ventricular repolarization characteristics in healthy and LQTS subjects. 2015 International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society pp.2796 - 2799 DOI:10.1109/EMBC.2015.7318972
pdfPage A,Soyata T,Couderc JP,Aktas M. An Open Source ECG Clock Generator for Visualization of Long-Term Cardiac Monitoring Data. 2015, Volume: 3 IEEE Journals & Magazines Pages: 2704 - 2714, DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2015.2509426


2015 - Manuscripts

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12 publications
pdfVicente Jose, Johannesen Lars, Mason Jay W., Crumb William J., Pueyo Esther, Stockbridge Norman, Strauss David G., Comprehensive T wave Morphology Assessment in a Randomized Clinical Study of Dofetilide, Quinidine, Ranolazine, and Verapamil, 2015 April 13, doi: 10.1161/JAHA.114.001615
pdfRoonizi,E.K., Rivolta,M.W., Mainardi,L.T., Sassi,R. A Comparison of Three Methodologies for the Computation of V-index. Computing in Cardiology 2015; 42:593-596, ISSN 2325-8861
pdfHassanalieragh, M., Page, A., Soyata, T., Sharma, G., Aktas, M., Mateos, G., Kantarci, B., Andreescu, S., Health Monitoring and Management Using Internet-of-Things (IoT) Sensing with Cloud-Based Processing: Opportunities and Challenges, in Services Computing (SCC), 2015 IEEE International Conference on , vol., no., pp.285-292, June 27 2015-July 2 2015 doi: 10.1109/SCC.2015.47
pdfSoyata T. Enabling Real-Time Mobile Cloud Computing through Emerging Technologies DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8662-5 Publisher: IGI Global, Editor: Tolga Soyata, ISBN: 9781466686632
pdfPage A, Soyata T, Couderc JP, Aktas Mehmet, Kantarci Burak, Andreescu Silvana. Visualization of Health Monitoring Data acquired from Distributed Sensors for Multiple Patients
pdfPage A, Aktas MK, Soyata T, Zareba W, Couderc JP. The "QT Clock" to Improve Detection of QT Prolongation in Long QT Syndrome Patients. Heart Rhythm. 2015 Aug 31. pii: S1547-5271(15)01127-3. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2015.08.037. PubMed PMID: 26334569.
pdfFiroozabadi Reza, Gregg Richard E., Babaeizadeh Saeed, Identification of Exercise-Induced Ischemia using QRS Slopes, Journal of Electrocardiology (2015), doi:10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2015.09.001
pdfBoonstra, M.J. and Leeuwen, K.G. van and Porte, F.M. and Spijkerboer, F.L. (2015) Quantification of postoperative atrial fibrillation by automatic analysis of electrocardiograms. A study to find incidence and burden of PoAF after open chest surgical aortic valve replacement.
pdfRivolta, Massimo Walter, Roberto Sassi, and Ernesto Damiani. Non-Blind Source Separation and Feature Extraction: Theory, Approach and Case Studies in Cardiac Signals.
pdfKocabaş, Övünç, and Tolga Soyata, Towards Privacy-Preserving Medical Cloud Computing Using Homomorphic Encryption. IGI Publishers (2015).
pdfRivolta M W, Mainardi L T and Sassi R 2014 Quantification of ventricular repolarization heterogeneity during moxifloxacin administration using V-index 8th Conf. of the European Study Group on Cardiovascular Oscillations et al Physiological Measurement 36 (2015) 803-811 doi:10.1088/0967-3334/36/4/803
pdfSterling, Mark, David T. Huang, and Behnaz Ghoraani. Developing a New Computer-aided Clinical Decision Support System For Prediction of Successful Post-cardioversion Patients With Persistent Atrial Fibrillation..Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE. (2015).


2014 - Manuscripts

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9 publications
pdfRuggero Donida Labati, Vincenzo Piuri, Roberto Sassi, Fabio Scotti, Gianluca Sforza, Adaptive ECG Biometric Recognition: a Study on Re-Enrollment Methods for QRS Signals, IEEE Workshop on Computational Intelligence in Biometrics and Identity Management (CIBIM),December 2014
pdfArash Sadrieh, Luke Domanski, Joe Pitt-Francis, Stefan A.Mann, Emily C. Hodkinson, Chai-Ann Ng, Matthew D. Perry, John A.Taylor, David Gavaghan, Rajesh N.Subbiah, Jamie I.Vandenberg, Adam P. Hill. Multiscale cardiac modelling reveals the origins of notched T waves in long QT syndrome type 2, Nature Communications 5, Article number: 5069 doi:10.1038/ncomms6069,Received 06 March 2014 Accepted 26 August 2014 Published 25 September 2014
pdfYi Zhu, Xiaolin Yang, Zhigang Wang, Yi Peng. An Evaluating Method for Autonomic Nerve Activity by Means of Estimating the Consistency of Heart Rate Variability and QT Variability,Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on , vol.61, no.3, pp.938,945, March 2014
pdfRobert L. Lux,Christopher Todd Sower,Nancy Allen,Susan P. Etheridge,Martin Tristani-Firouzi,Elizabeth V. Saarel. The application of root mean square electrocardiography (RMS ECG) for the detection of acquired and congenital long QT syndrome. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 15;9(1):e85689. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085689. eCollection 2014.
pdfA. Page, O. Kocabas, S. Ames, M. Venkitasubramaniyam, and T. Soyata, Cloud-based Secure Health Monitoring: Optimizing Fully-Homomorphic Encryption for Streaming Algorithms, IEEE Globecom 2014 Workshop on Cloud Computing Systems, Networks, and Applications (CCSNA), pp. , Dec 2014.
pdfKocabas O, Soyata T, Couderc JP, Aktas M, Xia J, and Huang M., Assessment of Cloud - based Health Monitoring using Homomorphic Encryption. In: Computer Design (ICCD), 2013 IEEE 31st International Conference on DOI: 10.1109/ICCD.2013.6657078 Publication Year: 2013 , Page(s): 443 - 446 .
pdfAlbert Feeny, Lichy Han, Larisa G. Tereshchenko, Repolarization lability measured on 10-second ECG by spatial TT′ angle: Reproducibility and agreement with QT variability. J Electrocardiol. 2014 Jun 9. pii: S0022-0736(14)00168-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2014.06.003.
pdfMassimo W. Rivolta, Luca T. Mainardi, Roberto Sassi, Quantification of Ventricular Repolarization Heterogeneity during Moxifloxacin Administration using V-index Cardiovascular Oscillations (ESGCO), 2014 8th Conference of the European Study Group on, vol.,no.,pp.183,184,25-28 May 2014 doi: 10.1109/ESGCO.2014.6847580
pdfRobert L. Lux, Christopher Todd Sower, Nancy Allen, Susan P. Etheridge, Martin Tristani-Firouzi1, Elizabeth V. Saarel2. The Application of Root Mean Square Electrocardiography (RMS ECG) for the Detection of Acquired and Congenital Long QT Syndrome PLoS ONE 9(1): e85689. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085689


2013 - Manuscripts

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6 publications
pdfY Zhu, X Yang, Z Wang, Y Peng. Comparative Analysis of Short-Term Vari ability of RR and QT Intervals for the Assessment of Autonomic Nerve Activity ISSN 2325-8861 Computing in Cardiology 2013; 40:73-76
pdfJ Halamek, P Jurak, P Leinveber, V Vondra, JP Couderc. Comparing the Relationsh ip between QT/RR Slope and Basal QTc in LQT1 Patients and Healthy Subjects ISSN 2325-8861 Computing in Cardiology 2013; 40:65-68
pdfM Llamedo, JP Martínez, M Albertal, D Romero,E Pueyo, P Laguna. Morphologic Features of the ECG for Detection of Stress-Induced Ischemia ISSN 2325-886 Computing in Cardiology 2013; 40:591-594
pdfN Scarcelli, M Couderc, MN Baco, J Egah, Y Vigouroux. Clonal diversity and estimation of relative clone age: application to agrobiodiversity of yam (Dioscorea rotundata) Scarcelli et al. BMC Plant Biology 2013,13:178
pdfGoodsaid F, Mates WB. The path from Biomarker Discovery to Regulatory Qualification. Academic Press; 1 edition (August 15, 2013), ISBN- 10: 0123914965, 208 pp
pdfSur S, Han L, Tereshchenko LG. Comparison of Sum Absolute QRST Integral, and Temporal Variability in Depolarization and Repolarization, Measured by Dynamic Vectorcardiography Approach, in Healthy Men and Women. PLoS One 2013;8(2):e57175


2012 - Manuscripts

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9 publications
pdfGuldenring D. et al. Estimation performance of a reduced lead system during continuous 12-lead ECG ST-segment monitoring. J Electocardiol., 2012,604-608
pdfHasan MA, Abbott D, Baumert M.Beat-to-Beat Vectorcardiographic Analysis of Ventricular Depolarization and Repolarization in Myocardial Infarction.PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49489. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049489.
pdfRoberto Sassi, Luca T Mainardi. Quantification of Spatial Repolarization Heterogeneity: Testing the Robustness of a New Technique.Computing in Cardiology 2012; 39:69-72.
pdfHalamek J, Couderc JP, Jurak P, Vondra V, Zareba W, Viscor I, Leinveber M Sc P. Measure of the QT-RR Dynamic Coupling in Patients with the Long QT Syndrome.Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2012 Oct;17(4):323-30.
pdfPickham D, Mortara D, Drew BJ. Time dependent history improves QT interval estimation in atrial fibrillation.J Electrocardiol. 2012 Nov.,45(6):556-60.
pdfTereshchenko LG, Cygankiewicz I, McNitt S, Vazquez R, Bayes-Genis A, Han L, Sur S, Couderc JP, Berger RD, Bayes de Luna A, Zareba W.Predictive Value of Beat-to-Beat QT Variability Index across the Continuum of Left Ventricular Dysfunction: Competing Risks of Non-cardiac or Cardiovascular Death, and Sudden or Non-Sudden Cardiac Death. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2012. doi:10.1161
pdfMathias Baumert, Vito Starc, Alberto Porta. Conventional QT Variability Measurement vs. Template Matching Techniques: Comparison of Performance Using Simulated and Real ECG. : PLoS ONE 2012, 7,7:e41920
pdfCouderc JP,Xia X,Denjoy I,Extramiana F,Maison-Blanche P, Moss AJ, Zareba W, Lopes CM: Genotype- and Sex-Specific QT-RR Relationship in the Type- 1 Long-QT Syndrome. J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;doi: 10.1161
pdfLaura Burattini and Roberto Burattini.Characterization of Repolarization Alternansin the Coronary Artery Disease. Department of Information Engineering,Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona,Italy


2011 - Manuscripts

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3 publications
pdfSassi R, Mainardi L. An estimate of the dispersion of repolarization times based on a biophysical model of the ECG. IEEE 2011.IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2011 Dec;58(12):3396-405.
pdfDarpo B, Fossa AA, Couderc JP, Zhou M, Schreyer A, Ticktin M, Zapesochny A.Improving the precision of QT measurements.Cardiol J. 2011;18(4):401- 10.
pdfAbrahamsson C, Dota C, Skallefell B, et al. DeltaT50-a new method to assess temporal ventricular repolarization variability. J Electrocardiol 2011;44:477-479.


2010 - Manuscripts

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17 publications
pdfJing Wu,Xiaojuan Xia,Jean-Philippe Couderc,Modified ∏-shaped Finite Impulse Response Filter for Stabilization of QT Measurement.Computing in Cardiology 2010;37:489-492
pdfJohannesen L, Grove USL, Sørensen JS, Schmidt ML, Couderc JP, Graff C. A Wavelet-Based Algorithm for Delineation and Classification of Wave Patterns in Continuous Holter ECG Recordings. Computing in Cardiology 2010;37:979−982
pdfSørensen JS, Johannesen L, Grove USL, Lundhus K, Couderc JP, Graff C. A Comparison of IIR and Wavelet Filtering for Noise Reduction of the ECG. Computing in Cardiology 2010;37:489−492
pdfJohannesen L, Grove USL, Sørensen JS, Schmidt ML, Graff C, Couderc JP. Analysis of T-wave Amplitude Adaptation to Heart Rate Using RR-binning of Long-Term ECG Recordings. Computing in Cardiology 2010;37:369−37
pdfHalámek J, Jurák P, Lipoldová J, Leinveber P. QT/RR Coupling and Gender Difference. Computing in Cardiology 2010;37:365?368
pdfBaas T, Gravenhorst F, Fischer R, Khawaja A, Dössel O. Comparison of three T-Wave Delineation Algorithms based on Wavelet Filterbank, Correlation and PCA. Computing in Cardiology 2010;37:361−36
pdfCouderc JP, Xia J, Xu X, Kääb S, Hinteeser M, Zareba W. Static and Dynamic Electrocardiographic Patterns Preceding Torsades de Pointes in the Acquired and Congenital Long QT Syndrome. Computing in Cardiology 2010;37:357−360
pdfJie X, Rodriguez B, Pueyo E. Torsadogenic Drug-induced Increased Short-term Variability of JT-area. Computing in Cardiology 2010;37:353−356
pdfKhawaja A, Petrovic R, Safer A, Baas T, Dössel O, Fischer R. Analyzing Thorough QT Study 1 & 2 in the Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW) using Hannover ECG System HESR: a Validation Study. Computing in Cardiology 2010;37:349−352
pdfJ.P. Couderc . A scientific repository to support the research and development of technologies related to quantitative electrocardiography: the Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW). Cardiol J 2010;17(4):416-9
pdfBurattini L, Zareba W, Burattini R. Identification of gender-related normality regions for T-wave alternans. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2010 October;15(4):328-36
pdfX. Jie, B. Rodriguez, and E. Pueyo, "A new ECG biomarker for drug toxicity : a combined signal processing and computational modeling study," in Conf.Proc.IEEE Eng Med.Biol.Soc., 978-1-4244-4124 ed 2010, pp. 2565-2568
pdfJ. P. Couderc, "The Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse Initiative (THEW): a Data Repository for the Design, Implementation and Validation of ECG-related Technologies," in Conf.Proc.IEEE Eng Med.Biol.Soc., 978-1-4244-4124 ed 2010, pp. 6252-6255
pdfJ. P. Couderc and C. M. Lopes, "Short and long QT syndromes: does QT length really matter?," J Electrocardiol., vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 396-399, Sept.2010
pdfB. J. Drew, "Response to the authors: Dr. Nieminen and Dr. Verrier," J Am Coll Cardiol, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 241-242, July2010
pdfJ.P. Couderc . A unique digital electrocardiographic repository for the development of quantitative electrocardiography and cardiac safety: the Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW). J Electrocardiol 2010 November;43(6):595-600
pdfJ. Halamek, P. Leinveber, V. Vondra, and J. Lipoldova, "Gender dependency of the QT parameters,". N. Wessel, Ed. 2010, pp. 1-4


2009 - Manuscripts

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3 publications
pdfBarbara J Drew, Daniel M Schindler, Jessica K Zegre, Kirsten E Fleischmann, Robert L Lux, Estimated Body Surface Potential Maps in Emergency Department Patients with Unrecognized Transient Myocardial Ischemia, J Electrocardiol. 2007 Nov-Dec;40(6 Suppl):S15-20
pdfJ. P. Couderc, "Measurement and regulation of cardiac ventricular repolarization: from the QT interval to repolarization morphology," Philos. Transact. A Math. Phys. Eng Sci., vol. 367, no. 1892, pp. 1283-1299, Apr.2009.
pdfJ. P. Couderc and W. Zareba, \"An update on QT measurement and interpretation methodologies,\" Ann. Noninvasive. Electrocardiol., vol. 14 Suppl 1, p. S1-S2, Jan.2009